K. Mathwig, T. J. Aartsma, G. W. Canters and S. G. Lemay
Nanoscale Methods for Single-Molecule Electrochemistry
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry 7 (2014) 383.
The development of experiments capable of probing individual molecules has led to major breakthroughs in fields ranging from molecular electronics to biophysics, allowing direct tests of knowledge derived from macroscopic measurements and enabling new assays that probe population heterogeneities and internal molecular dynamics. Although still partly in their infancy, such methods are also being developed for probing molecular systems in solution using electrochemical transduction mechanisms. Here we outline the present status of this emerging field, concentrating in particular on optical methods, metal molecule metal junctions, and electrochemical nanofluidic devices.