S. Sarkar, K. Mathwig, S. Kang, A. F. Nieuwenhuis and S. G. Lemay
Redox Cycling Without Reference Electrode
Analyst 139 (2014) 6052.
The reference electrode is a key component in electrochemical measurements, yet it remains a challenge to implement a reliable reference electrode in miniaturized electrochemical sensors. Here we explore experimentally and theoretically an alternative approach based on redox cycling which eliminates the reference electrode altogether. We show that shifts in the solution potential caused by the lack of reference can be understood quantitatively, and determine the requirements for accurate measurements in miniaturized systems in the absence of a reference electrode.