Jin Cui, Klaus Mathwig, Dileep Mampallil and Serge G. Lemay, Analytical Chemistry, published online. [link]
Nanoscale channels and electrodes for electrochemical measurements exhibit extreme surface-to-volume ratios and a correspondingly high sensitivity to even weak degrees of surface interactions. Here, we exploit the potential-dependent reversible adsorption of outer-sphere redox species to modulate in space and time their concentration in a nanochannel under advective flow conditions. Induced concentration variations propagate downstream at a species-dependent velocity. This allows one to amperometrically distinguish between attomole amounts of species based on their time-of-flight. On-demand concentration pulse generation, separation, and detection are all integrated in a miniaturized platform.